Instructions for Authors

August 2018

Animal Welfare
ISSN 0962-7286

Editor: Robert C Hubrecht
Universities Federation for Animal Welfare
The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Herts AL4 8AN, UK
Tel:+44 (0)1582 831818
Fax: +44 (0) 1582 831414

Editorial Assistant: Steve Weddell Tel: 01506 884488

Aim and scope of the journal

Animal Welfare is an international scientific and technical journal. It publishes the results of peer-reviewed scientific research, technical studies and reviews relating to the welfare of kept animals (eg on farms, in laboratories, zoos and as companions) and of those in the wild whose welfare is compromised by human activities. Papers on related ethical, social, and legal issues and interdisciplinary papers will also be considered for publication.  Studies that are derivative or which replicate existing publications will only be considered if they are adequately justified.

Papers will only be considered if they bring new knowledge (for research papers), new perspectives (for reviews) or develop new techniques. Papers must have the potential to improve animal welfare, and the way in which they achieve this, or are likely to do so, must be clearly specified in the section on Animal welfare implications.

The journal also includes letters to the editor, commentary on topical issues such as developments in legislation and codes of practice


The journal is covered by the Science Citation Index and is abstracted in: Biological Abstracts; CAB Abstracts; Current Contents/Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Sciences; Current Primate References; EMBASE; Focus on: Veterinary Science & Medicine; Humans & Other Species; Research Alert; SciSearch; Toxicology Abstracts; Veterinary Update; it is indexed in Zoological Record.

Refereed papers in Animal Welfare include:

  • Original articles
  • Invited essays
  • Review articles
  • Short communications of less than 2000 words. These may be original, interpretative or review papers; factual accounts of field workers' practical experiences in dealing with welfare problems; constructive critiques of other papers, etc
  • Technical contributions for example, on practical methods of improving animal welfare or on aspects of research methodology or technology

Access to papers published in Animal Welfare and open-access arrangements

Most, papers published in Animal Welfare are only available through subscription to UFAW or 'pay per view' at IngentaConnect. However, arrangements can be made for open access publication of papers where authors prefer this, providing the manuscripts are found to satisfy the same rigorous peer-review scrutiny process as all other papers published in the journal.

Open Access

The journal offers a number of routes for open access:


Authors can share preprints of their manuscript prior to acceptance for publication in Animal Welfare by providing copies to their students or to their research collaborators for their personal use.  If the paper is accepted for publication it is good practice to link the preprint to the final publication via its DOI, and we encourage you to do so to allow your readers to cite the research effectively.

Paid for Open Access (Gold Open Access)

The article processing charge for open-access publication is £1,800 per manuscript. Papers published on a Gold open access basis will be available free to all at the IngentaConnect website and will also be included, in the usual way, in the paper copy of the Journal. Please contact the UFAW office, no later than at the time of acceptance of the manuscript, if you wish to arrange or discuss open access and the appropriate licence.

If you have paid for Gold access and wish to share your article with others, please do this by providing a link to the published article on the journal website rather than by sending a file.

Self-archiving on a non-commercial repository or website (Green Open Access)

Authors may self-archive the accepted version of their manuscript* on a non-commercial repository or website, on condition that public access to the manuscript is enabled only after an embargo period of 12 months from the publication date of the issue in which the paper is published. This embargo period is needed to allow the Journal to provide value to paying subscribers. Accepted manuscripts should link to the final publication via the final publication’s DOI. This allows your readers to cite your research effectively. You must not make any changes to the archived accepted manuscript so as to make it more like the published paper in the journal Animal Welfare

Self archived manuscripts must have attached a CC-BY-NC-ND Licence, (see Creative Commons).

Authors are NOT allowed to self-archive, so as to make available for open access, any version of the paper that has been edited and/or formatted for publication in the Journal Animal Welfare.

* The ‘accepted version of the manuscript’ means the accepted unformatted manuscript as submitted by the author(s), usually with the author’s corrections based on referees and editorial comments.

Open Access in developing countries

In pursuit of its charitable objective to promote welfare through education and to make the welfare information published by UFAW accessible to a wide worldwide audience, UFAW has partnered with HINARI a World Health Organisation programme to make Animal Welfare available online, free or at very low cost, to staff members and students in qualifying not-for-profit organisations based in developing countries throughout the World. Organisations in these countries able to access the journal include national universities, medical schools (including nursing, pharmacy, public health, and dentistry schools), research institutes, teaching hospitals and healthcare centres, government offices, national medical libraries and local non-governmental organisations  (a list is available at this address The journal is also linked through the OARE (Online Access to Research in the Environment) scheme led by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the AGORA program (Access to Global Online Resources in Agriculture), set up by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. 

Policy on studies involving live animals

Animal Welfare will not include papers based on work that involves unnecessary pain, distress, suffering or lasting harm. Manuscripts describing research involving live animals must include appropriate details, in the methods section, of animals used, housing and feeding, experimental design, experimental procedures, ethical considerations, and licences and approvals under which the work was carried out (see Materials and methods).

In preparation of manuscripts describing work on live animals, authors should use the ARRIVE guidelines as a checklist. These guidelines are available at:

Other restrictions

Material submitted must not have been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. Papers should not normally exceed 10 000 words (c20 pages of the journal including tables, diagrams and references).

Publication of additional/supporting material that is related to, but not part of, the paper

Additional supporting material such as data sets or appendices that are relevant to, but which do not form part of, the paper itself can be submitted for publication at the Animal Welfare website. Such additional material (up to a maximum of 20 A4 pages) should be submitted at the same time as the manuscript and in PDF format. Where such additional material is available, reference should be made to this at an appropriate point or points in the text. When the paper is published, the website address of the additional material will be made clear at this point or points.

Review articles

A good review article has the following features:

(1) Originality.

(2) Advances knowledge and original thinking.
(3) Theory-based.

(4) Evidence-based.

(5) Accurate, comprehensive and rigorous.

(6) Provide recommendations for future enquiry.

(7) Stimulates debate.  

See Hagger MS 2012 What makes a ‘good’ review article? Some reflections and recommendations. Health Psychology Review 6: 141-146.

It is important that writers of reviews explicitly state in the methods section the methodology used in their review:

  • Databases searched
  • Search terms
  • Any restrictions on the search, eg date limits
  • Criteria for inclusion or rejection from the review
  • Any further searches, eg use of references in articles found in the initial search.

The following paper provides a good example in the methods section as to how this should be done. Gilliam MB, and Schwebel DC 2013 Physical activity in child and adolescent cancer survivors: a review. Health Psychology Review 7: 92-110.

Submission of manuscripts

Papers should be submitted through our ScholarOne Manuscripts site: Please refer to the section above on Aim and scope of the journal before submitting a paper. The author should keep a copy of all submitted material. All manuscripts must be word processed in Microsoft Word. 

The author will be required to confirm that:

  • legal and ethical requirements regarding use of animals or collection of data from human subjects have been met, see Policy on studies involving live animals and Other restrictions above, and also the Materials and methods section in Preparation of manuscripts below;
  • written permission has been obtained to reproduce text, illustrations or data or to quote from published works, and that suitable acknowledgements of source have been made;
  • for multi-author papers, all authors have agreed the final text for publication.
  • articles will typically be scrutinised by a minimum of two referees before being accepted or rejected and authors are encouraged to suggest and provide the names and contact details of up to three referees suitable for peer reviewing of their manuscript (these may or may not be selected by Section Editors to undertake the peer review).


Papers must be written in the English language. Articles should be written in a style that is readily comprehensible.

Preparation of manuscripts

Authors should consult a recent edition of the journal to familiarise themselves with the journal's conventions on format.

Manuscripts should be word processed in Microsoft Word using Times New Roman font, double-spaced with lines numbered. The pages should be numbered consecutively and securely fixed together. The contents will usually be organised into an Abstract (followed by keywords), Introduction, Materials and methods section (including statistical analyses), Results, Discussion, Conclusion and Animal welfare implications. A running title must be supplied (of no more than 7 words).

Title page

Give the full title and running title of the paper and the name(s) of the author(s). For multi-author papers the full e-mail, telephone, fax and postal addresses of the correspondent should be given, plus the addresses of the other authors. The correspondent must be clearly indicated.

Centre the title in bold letters. Name(s) and institutional address(es) of author(s) should be centred under the title in upper and lower case, eg

Advances in the assessment of animal welfare
AN Other
University of Wheathampstead


To consist of not more than 250 words. It should outline clearly and concisely the main findings without reference to the text and end in a brief statement on the paper's conclusions and animal welfare implications. This should not contain details of statistical analyses or references (eg P > 0.01).


Six keywords should be noted in alphabetical order below the abstract. These should include 'animal welfare' and the common name of the main species involved (where appropriate). The keywords will be used for abstracting and indexing the article.

Materials and methods

The description of the methods should be sufficiently detailed to allow replication of the work. In studies involving animals, provide details of numbers used and of species, strain, age, sex, source and other relevant characters.

In preparation of manuscripts describing work on live animals, authors should use the ARRIVE guidelines as a checklist. These guidelines are available at:

Full details should be given of experimental design, procedures and testing or observational regimes. Description of the statistical analyses should also be included as a subdivision of the methods section (see recent paper for format). If the animals were kept in captivity, provide relevant details of housing, feeding and management (eg type of housing and environment, diet and feeding regime, group size and composition, and acclimation and routine management procedures).

Where ethical considerations arise (eg if procedures compromise animal welfare or other ethical concerns), these should be addressed in the methods section. Any ethical implications and justifications of the experimental design or procedures should be described; details should be provided of licences or other permissions required for the work (eg from ethical review bodies). Measures undertaken to minimise the adverse welfare impact on animals involved, including choice of sample size, use of pilot tests and predetermined rules for intervention, should be described. The fate of all animals used in the study should be detailed. Steps taken to enhance the welfare of animals involved (eg through environmental enrichment) should also be outlined.

Data should be subjected to appropriate statistical analyses, with the chosen methods clearly described. Relevant references or details of software packages should be cited.

When expressing statistical probabilities, follow the following style: n = 7; ns - not significant; P < 0.05, P = 0.1, one-tailed P < 0.01 (capital, italic P, single space either side of < or = sign); F5,25 = 2.61; where appropriate, indicate the number of degrees of freedom (as df = 3).

Follow the ARRIVE Guidelines concerning statistics and their presentation (see above).

Animal welfare implications

To be set out at the end of the text as a subdivision of the discussion or conclusion.


List at the end of the text in alphabetical and chronological order of authors with the minimum of punctuation. Book and journal titles should be quoted in full, with the original spelling and punctuation, and italicised. For example, American spellings of 'behavior' and 'color' are to be used if they have been published as such. Supply details of editor(s) and name and location of publisher for books and published conferences/symposia. For unpublished proceedings etc supply exact details of title, venue, date, location and sponsoring organisation.

The references must be listed in the following style:

Meyer-Holzapfel M 1968 Abnormal behavior in zoo animals. In: Fox MW (ed) Abnormal Behavior in Animals pp 24-38. WB Saunders: Philadelphia, USA

Benham PJF 1982 Social organization and leadership in a grazing herd of suckler cows. Applied Animal Ethology 9: 95 (Abstract)

Boudreau PL and Tsuchitani C 1973 Sensory Neurophysiology. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, USA

Dantzer R, Mormède P and Henry JP 1983 Physiological assessment of adaptation in farm animals. In: Baxter SH, Baxter MR and McCormack JAD (eds) Farm Animal Housing and Welfare pp 8-19. Martinus Nijhoff: The Hague, The Netherlands

Duncan IJH 1985 How do fearful birds respond? In: Wegner RM (ed) Proceedings of the Second European Symposium on Poultry Welfare pp 96-106. World Poultry Science Association: Celle, Germany

Mitchell MA and Kettlewell PJ 1993 Catching and transport of broiler chickens. In: Savory CJ and Hughes BO (eds) Fourth European Symposium on Poultry Welfare, 18-21 September, Edinburgh, UK pp 219-229. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare: Hertfordshire, UK

Eaton P 1987 Hygiene in the animal house. In: Poole TB (ed) The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals, 6th Edition pp 144-158. Longman Scientific & Technical: Harlow, UK

Ross C 1988 The intrinsic rate of natural increase and reproductive effort in primates. Journal of Zoology 214: 199-219

Main headings

On a separate line, left-aligned in bold title case, eg

Animal health


On a separate line left-aligned in bold italics, eg

Respiratory disorders


Avoid if possible; otherwise should be on a separate line left-aligned in italics.


Acronyms should be in full the first time they appear, eg World Health Organisation (WHO). Full stops should not be used in contractions, for example ie etc eg, nor within acronyms. Figure or Table should not be abbreviated.


Footnotes to tables are to be indicated using superscript numbers and placed below the table. Footnotes in the text are not permitted.

Foreign words and phrases

Should be in italics except for common phrases (eg 'post mortem'), amputated phrases (eg 'post hoc') and abbreviations. However, 'et al' should be in italics.


Give as latitude and longitude (specifying degrees, minutes and seconds).


To comply with the abbreviations in the International System of Units (SI).


One to nine should be written in words unless they precede units of measurement. Numbers 10 and above should be written as numerals except at the beginning of a sentence. The 24 hour clock should be used for times of day, eg 1400h and, if relevant, corrected to standard local time. Zero should be inserted before the decimal point for values less than one, eg P = 0.05. A space should separate groups of three digits in whole numbers exceeding four digits (100, 1000, 10 000 etc).

References within the text

Cite with minimum punctuation, eg:

  • '... carried out by Smith and Jones (1985) ...';
  • '... (Smith & Jones 1985)...' ie use an ampersand when reference is in parentheses;
  • '... (Smith 1985; Jones 1986; Smythe 1986), ...' ie put two or more references in chronological and then alphabetical order, and separate each author's references by a semi-colon;
  • '... (Smith et al 1985)...' ie use et al for three or more authors;
  • '... (Smith 1986a, b; 1988)...' ie by an author in the same and in a subsequent year;
  • '... (Smith in press)...' ie has been accepted for publication but is not yet published;
  • '... (Smith 1980, 1986, 1990; Jones 1981, 1982)...' ie group all references to one author's work together.

For detailing specific points within multi-chapter or lengthy volumes the reference may include the chapter or page numbers, eg (Smith 1987 Ch 7) or (Smith 1987 p 3-4). Citations of personal communications and unpublished data should be avoided if possible. When they have to be used they should include the named source of the personal communication and the date.

  • Check that spellings of authors' names and publication dates in the text and references are consistent.
  • Ensure that all references in the text appear in the reference section.
  • Ensure that all references in the reference section are cited in the text.

Scientific and common names

When first mentioned in the paper, species should be described by the common English name and defined by the full scientific name, eg rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Thereafter either rabbit or O. cuniculus may be used, preferably the former. Names of genera and species or subspecies should be in italics. Nomenclature for outbred laboratory animals should conform to that recommended by the Committee on Nomenclature, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Washington DC, USA.


This should be English and - except for quotations and references - conform to the first entry in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary.

Trade products

Give the brief address from where the product may be obtained eg '...Kong Ball' (supplied by the Company of Animals, Chertsey, Surrey)...'. Denote any T or ® marks required.


Each table should be typed on a separate sheet and its place in the text indicated. Tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals (eg Table 1, Table 2 etc). Titles should be brief and placed above the table. Titles between tables should be as consistent as possible. Additional information, such as the key or acknowledgement, should be shown below. Wherever possible, tables should be created using the table feature. Tables must be portrait (not landscape) and designed to fit the journal page format.


Please note that figures must follow the format below.

Figures should not be larger than A4 size, and must be cited in the text at least once.

Figures should be as simple as possible; particularly avoid three-dimensional graphics. There should be no enclosing lines on graphs or keys. Arial font should be used throughout for all text. Axis labels should be in arial 8 point bold throughout and tick labels should be in arial 7 point regular (ie not bold). Decimal points must be full stops and not commas.

Standard error bars should be shown where possible. For data points these extend below and above the point with short horizontal lines denoting the ends. For histograms these extend above each block with a short horizontal line denoting the end.

Figures should also be submitted in a format that allows them to be edited and formatted as per our in-house style. This requires them not to be submitted as TIF files or simply scanned in but to be in Word, Excel or Illustrator files.

Captions (Figure number plus title)

The figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and 'Figure' written in full, (eg Figure 1, Figure 2 etc). This should be accompanied by a brief title and a caption that is self-explanatory, needing no reference to the text.

Similar figures should have the same format and similar titles/captions, so they can be easily compared (this also applies to Tables).

Figures that share captions should be marked (a), (b) etc in the top left-hand corner and if they have the same x-axis and/or y-axis measurement it may be possible to share axis labels.


All axis labels to be in arial 8 point bold. All tick labels to be in arial 7 point regular (ie not bold).

All letters in lower-case except the first letter of the first word.

No full stops after labels and no underlining.

Graph axis headings should include both parameter and unit.

All decimal points should be full stops and not commas.

Système International (SI) units should be used, noted in negative exponent form and in brackets at the end of the heading (as used in the Journal of Zoology; Applied Animal Behaviour Science; Nature), eg 'Corticosterone concentration (ng ml-1)'.


Keys should be included within the graph in a blank space, preferably at the top right-hand corner (not enclosed in lines).

Only use shadings which are sharp and are easily distinguished from each other. Black, white and greyscale are preferred.

Use large and preferably solid symbols (circles, triangles and squares) for data points.


Photographs are welcomed, and should be submitted as either GIF, TIF, BMP or JPEG images along with the original submission. A bar scale with relevant units should be shown, or the magnification indicated where relevant. Any photographs that would be suitable for the cover should also be submitted.

Authors wishing to publish coloured prints should contact the editorial office to discuss charges.


Any figures that have been taken directly from other manuscripts must have copyright permission from both the author and the publisher, or only the author if the material is unpublished. This permission must be submitted in writing with the necessary signatures when the manuscript is submitted.


Readers are invited to submit and respond to observations and opinions on topical animal welfare issues, as well as on material published in the journal. Publication will be subject to editorial discretion and the journal reserves the right to edit for clarity and style.

Peer review

The Editor, or appropriate Section Editorwill carry out an initial assessment of submissions regarding their suitability for the journal. Suitable papers will then typically be sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality and also any ethical issues raised by the paperThe journal uses a single blind review process. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. 


These are supplied in advance of publication by e-mail and must be returned by the specified date; any delay in returning the proof may result in the paper being held over until a subsequent issue. Only essential corrections should be made. Charges may be levied for authors' errors.


The corresponding author of a paper will be supplied with a complimentary copy of the relevant journal issue and 10 free reprints. Further copies may be ordered at extra cost at the proof stage.


Unless otherwise agreed with UFAW, The copyright of each paper published becomes the property of UFAW and written permission must be sought to reproduce any part or whole of the paper. However, UFAW will not put undue limitations on the author to use the material in other works. Alternative licencing arrangements can be made for open-access papers where the authors have paid an article processing charge (see Creative Commons).

Conflicts of Interest

Authors must disclose any conflicts of interest that might either influence or be thought to influence the submitted work. These may include employment, ownership of stocks, grants or patients, any financial benefit, or personal links. Reported conflicts of interest will be considered by the editorial team when they make a decision about publication, and the Editor may require their publication with the paper as a condition of publication.

Section Editors

Companion animals other than Equines

Professor Xavier Manteca
School of Veterinary Science
Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona
08193 Barcelona


Ethics, philosophy and social science

Professor Peter Sandøe
Danish Centre for Bioethics and Risk Assessment
Rolighedsvej 25
DK-1958 Frederiksberg C


Farmed pigs

Dr Monique Pairis-Garcia DVM
College of Food, Agriculture & Environmental Sciences
The Ohio State University
222E Animal Science Building
2029 Fyffe Road
Columbus, OH 43120


Farmed ruminants

Dr Marina von Keyserlingk
Animal Welfare Program
University of Brisith Columbia
2357 Main Mall
Canada V6T 1Z6


Farmed fish

Professor Jimmy Turnbull
Institute of Aquaculture
Faculty of Natural Sciences
University of Stirling
Stirling FK9 4LA, UK


Horses and other equines

Professor Hayley Randle
School of Animal & Veterinary Sciences
Charles Sturt University
Building 229
Albert Pugsley Place Locked Bag 588
Wagga Wagga NSW 2678 Australia


Other farmed mammals

UFAW Editorial Office
The Old School
Brewhouse Hill
Herts AL4 8AN, UK


General animal welfare science

Professor Mara Miele
School of Geography and Planning
Cardiff University
Glamorgan Building
King Edward VII Avenue
Cardiff CF10 3WA, UK


Laboratory animals

Professor Jann Hau
Department of Experimental Medicine
University of Copenhagen
3B Blegdamsvej
DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark



Dr Bas Rodenburg
Behavioural Ecology Group
De Elst 1
6708 WD Wageningen
The Netherlands


Wild animals

Dr Sandra Baker
Zoology Department
University of Oxford
The Recanati-Kaplan Centre
Tubney House
Abingdon Road
Abingdon OX13 5QL, UK


Zoo animals

Dr Fay Clark
Higher Education and Research Officer
Bristol Zoologial Gardens
Bristol BS8 3HA